When American swimmer Lilly King wagged her finger at Russian Yulia Efimova in the pool at the Rio Games last summer, it was an iconic Olympic moment. Americans good, Russians bad. Americans train hard, Russians cheat.
Yet when President Jimmy Carter signed into law the creation of the U.S. Olympic Committee via the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, it essentially sent American sports doping underground. The USOC wasn’t making anyone dope, but it was telling them they had to perform in an athletic climate rife with cheating.